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[Bahasa Inggris] Mengenal Grammar

Active Voice
In the active voice, the subject of the verb does the action (eg They killed the President). See also Passive Voice.



Adjective
A word like big, red, easy, French etc. An adjective describes a noun or pronoun.



Adverb
A word like slowly, quietly, well, often etc. An adverb modifies a verb.
Article
The "indefinite" articles are a and an. The "definite article" is the.


Auxiliary Verb
A verb that is used with a main verb. Be, do and have are auxiliary verbs. Can, may, must etc are modal auxiliary verbs.



Clause
A group of words containing a subject and its verb (for example: It was late when he arrived).


Conjunction
A word used to connect words, phrases and clauses (for example: and, but, if).



Infinitive
The basic form of a verb as in to work or work.



Interjection
An exclamation inserted into an utterance without grammatical connection (for example: oh!, ah!, ouch!, well!).


Modal Verb
An auxiliary verb like can, may, must etc that modifies the main verb and expresses possibility, probability etc. It is also called "modal auxiliary verb".


Noun
A word like table, dog, teacher, America etc. A noun is the name of an object, concept, person or place. A "concrete noun" is something you can see or touch like a person or car. An "abstract noun" is something that you cannot see or touch like a decision or happiness. A "countable noun" is something that you can count (for example: bottle, song, dollar). An "uncountable noun" is something that you cannot count (for example: water, music, money).



Object
In the active voice, a noun or its equivalent that receives the action of the verb. In the passive voice, a noun or its equivalent that does the action of the verb.



Participle
The -ing and -ed forms of verbs. The -ing form is called the "present participle". The -ed form is called the "past participle" (for irregular verbs, this is column 3).



Part Of Speech
One of the eight classes of word in English - noun, verb, adjective, adverb, pronoun, preposition, conjunction and interjection.


Passive Voice
In the passive voice, the subject receives the action of the verb (eg The President was killed). See also Active Voice.


Phrase
A group of words not containing a subject and its verb (eg on the table, the girl in a red dress).


Predicate
Each sentence contains (or implies) two parts: a subject and a predicate. The predicate is what is said about the subject.



Preposition
A word like at, to, in, over etc. Prepositions usually come before a noun and give information about things like time, place and direction.



Pronoun
A word like I, me, you, he, him, it etc. A pronoun replaces a noun.


Sentence
A group of words that express a thought. A sentence conveys a statement, question, exclamation or command. A sentence contains or implies a subject and a predicate. In simple terms, a sentence must contain a verb and (usually) a subject. A sentence starts with a capital letter and ends with a full stop (.), question mark (?) or exclamation mark (!).


Subject
Every sentence contains (or implies) two parts: a subject and a predicate. The subject is the main noun (or equivalent) in a sentence about which something is said.



Tense
The form of a verb that shows us when the action or state happens (past, present or future). Note that the name of a tense is not always a guide to when the action happens. The "present continuous tense", for example, can be used to talk about the present or the future.



Verb
A word like (to) work, (to) love, (to) begin. A verb describes an action or state.
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Reply With Quote     #2   Report Post     Original Poster (OP)

Bls: Mengenal Grammar

Diatas kita jadikan sebagai sumber pembahasan. Selanjutnya mari kita bahas sub per Sub.

Kutip:
Tense
The form of a verb that shows us when the action or state happens (past, present or future). Note that the name of a tense is not always a guide to when the action happens. The "present continuous tense", for example, can be used to talk about the present or the future.
Namun, sebelum melangkah jauh, siapa diantara kalian yang bisa menyampaikan pengetahuan tentang tenses? Mungkin tidak harus sempurna, tapi kita akan mencoba mengupas sedikit-sedikit untuk mudah dicerna dan dimengerti.

Silahkan....
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Bls: Mengenal Grammar

Saya bersedia, Abah.
Sebentar saya ketik di tab yang lain.

-dipi-
Dipi76
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Bls: Mengenal Grammar

Di Indonesia di kenal 16 tenses bahasa inggris meski secara umum hanya 12 tenses. Tenses english secara sederhana dapat diartikan sebagai pola kalimat yang berubah menurut waktu merujuk pada masa lalu (Past), masa sekarang (Present) dan masa depan (Future). Dengan memahami tenses bahasa inggris kita bisa menyusun kalimat dengan lebih baik meski tidak harus selalu kita gunakan.
Berikut 16 tenses bahasa inggris yang akan kita pelajari :

The Simple Present Tense

Ciri utama simple present tense adalah penggunaan kata kerja (verb) bentuk pertama , dalam penggunaannya.

Bentuknya adalah sebagai berikut : S + P (v1) + O + K

Kapan kita menggnakan tense ini dalam percakapan? Yaitu ketika kita ingin mengungkapkan suatu kondisi seperti ini :

1.Suatu kegiatan yang merupakan kebiasaan dan berulang secara teratur.
  • I go to school everyday
  • The train leaves every 9 pm
  • Tanda waktu yang digunakan adalah every.....(day , week , year , month....etc)
2. Suatu kebenaran umum
  • The sky is blue
  • Jakarta is in Indonesia
3. Suatu kejadian yang akan terjadi dengan segera dalam jangka waktu tidak terlalu lama. Dan biasanya berhubungan dengan transportasi umum.
  • The train leaves tonight at 11 pm
  • Does class begin tomorrow?
  • The plane arrives at 12 pm
4.Untuk menyatakan bahwa suatu kejadian sedang berlangsung atau tidak berlangsung saat ini.
  • I am here now
  • They are not here now

Jadi kapanpun Anda melihat kata present dalam tenses apapun, bisa dipastikan bahwa dia menggunakan bentuk 1.

Contoh penggunaan to be

I am a teacher
You are a teacher
We are teachers
They are teachers

He is a teacher
She is a teacher
It is my cat

Kalau Anda mengamati, maka kalimat diatas semuanya mengggunakan PREDICATE-1 atau predikat dalam bentuk 1, lihat saja to be nya tidak lepas dari AM – IS – ARE. Contoh diatas adalah The simple present tense dalam bentuk nominal, karena semua kalimatnya menggunakan to be-1.

Sekarang kita lanjutkan pada pola kalimat VERBAL SIMPLE PRESENT – yaitu simple present yang tidak menggunakan to be, tetapi VERB 1 sebagai predicate 1 nya. Contohnya :

I work
You work
We work
They work

He works
She works
It works

He runs every morning
She teaches English
John has an English books

Untuk kata kerja yang berakhiran bunyi DESIS (hissing sounds – x, ch, s, sh), kita menggunakan akhira _es. sehingga menjadi : teaches, mixes, washes, kisses .. dsb.
Begitupun pada kata kerja HAVE seperti He Have(s) mendapatkan tambahan (s) – sehingga kalimat tersebut menjadi HE HAS.

Perubahan Kalimat Negative dan Interrogative

(+) You write
(-) You DON’T write
(?) DO you write?

(+) He writes
(-) He DOESN’T write
(?) Does he write?

Amati contoh lain

(+) You have a book
(-) You DON’T have a book
(?) DO you have a book?

(+) He has a book
(-) He DOESN’T have a book
(?) DOES he have a book?

Segitu dulu.

-dipi-
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agungsuhada: thankyou for your attention at this forum





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Bls: Mengenal Grammar

Present Continuous tense

Present Continuous tense dalam tenses bahasa inggris digunakan untuk tindakan yang sedang berlangsung sekarang, kejadian di waktu sedang berbicara dan tindakan yang berlangsung hanya untuk jangka waktu yang singkat. Present Continuous tense disebut juga dengan Present Progressive Tense.

Penggunaan :

1. kejadian sekarang atau kegiatan sementara
contoh : Mr. Architect is writing a new book
Mr Architect sedang menulis buku baru.

2. Rencana di masa depan yang sudah pasti waktunya (pribadi)
I am going to Surabaya at 07.30 tomorrow
Saya akan pergi ke Surabaya jam 7.30 besok.

3. kejadian terkait atas sesuatu atau seseorang disekitar waktu sekarang atau sedang berbicara
contoh : it is raining day
hari ini sedang hujan

Rumus Present Continuous Tense :

Positif (+):
subject + to be (am, is, are) + Verb – ing + object

Negatif (-) :
subject + to be + not + verb – ing + object

Tanya (?) :
to be + subject + verb – ing + object

Contoh Present Continuous Tense :

I am watching TV now (+)
Mr. Khanafi is not going to Jakarta (-)
Is Mrs. Annisa cooking in the kitchen ? (?)

Present Continuous tense membutuhkan :
- kata kerja “to be”

Tunggal,
I am (orang pertama)
You are (orang kedua)
He / she / it is (orang ketiga)

Jamak,
We are (orang pertama)
You are (orang kedua)
They are (orang ketiga)

- bentuk kata kerja “-ing”
Contoh :
Go + ing = going

- Keterangan waktu (adverb of time) yang sering digunakan dalam Present Continuous tense :
“NOW, RIGHT NOW, TOMORROW,etc”

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Bls: Mengenal Grammar

well, thankyou very much, madam.


Kutip:
S + P (v1) + O + K
Subyek + Predikat + Obyek + keterangan waktu

Nah, maksudnya Verb 1 itu apa ya, masih adakah verb yang lain?
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Bls: Mengenal Grammar

Verb 1 itu adalah verb atau kata kerja bentuk pertama. Dan ada verb 2 dan verb 3, semua pemakaiannya tergantung dari bentuk tensesnya.
contoh :
Verb 1 Run menjadi verb 2 berubah jadi Ran, itu tergantung tenses yang akan digunakan.

O ya, mengenai tenses yang lain nanti saya lanjutkan untuk diposting di sini.

-dipi-
Dipi76
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agungsuhada: thanks for your lesson





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Bls: Mengenal Grammar

Kutip:
Rumus Present Continuous Tense :

Positif (+):
subject + to be (am, is, are) + Verb – ing + object

Negatif (-) :
subject + to be + not + verb – ing + object

Tanya (?) :
to be + subject + verb – ing + object
Yuk kita lanjut pelajaran kita dengan menggunakan rumus diatas, marilah kita buat kalimatnya.

I am cooking rice
I am not cooking rice
am I cooking rice?

betul engga Non?

Ayo yang lain silahkan buat contohnya jangan malu-malu
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Bls: Mengenal Grammar

Betul Bah.

Contoh lainnya dengan memakai kata penunjuk waktu

We are reading a book now
We are not reading a book now
Are we reading a book now?

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Bls: Mengenal Grammar

I am learning English now
am I learning English now
I am not learning English, now.

Who one else? Please try it now at home
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